Introduction To Building Management Systems
A BMS is most common in a large building. Its core function is to manage the environment within the building and may control temperature, carbon dioxide levels and humidity within a building. As a core function in most BMS systems, it controls heating and cooling, manages the systems that distribute this air throughout the building (for example by operating fans or opening/closing dampers), and then locally controls the mixture of heating and cooling to achieve the desired room temperature. A secondary function sometimes is to monitor the level of human-generated CO2, mixing in outside air with waste air to increase the amount of oxygen while also minimising heat/cooling losses.
Systems linked to a BMS typically represent 40% of a building\\\’s energy usage; if lighting is included, this number approaches 70%. BMS systems are a critical component to managing energy demand. Improperly configured BMS systems are believed to account for 20% of building energy usage, or approximately 8% of total energy usage in the United States.
As well as controlling the building\\\’s internal environment, BMS systems are sometimes linked to access control (turnstiles and access doors controlling who is allowed access and egress to the building) or other security systems such as closed-circuit television (CCTV) and motion detectors. Fire alarm systems and elevators are also sometimes linked to a BMS, for example, if a fire is detected then the system could shut off dampers in the ventilation system to stop smoke spreading and send all the elevators to the ground floor and park them to prevent people from using them in the event of a fire.
Functions of Building Management Systems
The three basic functions of a central, computer-controlled BMS are:
the building’s facilities, mechanical, and electrical equipment for comfort, safety, and efficiency.
A BMS normally comprises of:
• Power systems
• Illumination system
• Electric power control system
• Heating,Ventilation and Air-conditioning HVAC System
• Security and observation system
• Magnetic card and access system
• Fire alarm system
• Lifts, elevators etc.
• Plumbing system
• Burglar alarms, CCTV
• Trace Heating
• Other engineering systems
• Home Automation System
• Fire alarm and Safety system
Benefits of BMS
• Good control of internal comfort conditions
• Possibility of individual room control
• Increased staff productivity
• Effective monitoring and targeting of energy consumption
• Improved plant reliability and life
• Effective response to HVAC-related complaints
• Save time and money during the maintenance
• Higher rental value
• Flexibility on change of building use
• Individual tenant billing for services facilities manager
• Central or remote control and monitoring of building
• Increased level of comfort and time saving
• Remote Monitoring of the plants (such as AHU\\\’s, Fire pumps, plumbing pumps, Electrical supply, STP, WTP etc.)
• Ease of information availability problem
• Computerized maintenance scheduling
• Effective use of maintenance staff
• Early detection of problems
• More satisfied occupants